Cecilia Han Springer, Samuel Evans and Fei Teng, “An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental Performance of China’s Overseas Coal Plants,” Environmental Research Letters 16, no. 5 (May 2021): 054062.
Tao, Liang and Celia, “Electric Power Development Associated with the Belt and Road Initiative and Its Carbon Emissions Implications,” Applied Energy, Volume 267 (June 1, 2020) 9–10.
Timo A Räsänen et al., “Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydropower in the Mekong River Basin,” Environmental Research Letters 13, no. 3 (March 1, 2018): 034030.
Tao et al. “assume the projects with missing commissioning dates (or upcoming commissioning dates) will be completed successfully. When evidence occurs that a project would be discontinued, such as the Lamu coal-fired power plant in Kenya that was halted in June 2019 for lack of thorough environmental assessment, we exclude that project from the dataset to be conservative.” Tao, Liang and Celia, “Electric Power Development Associated with the Belt and Road Initiative and Its Carbon Emissions Implications,” Applied Energy, Volume 267 (June 1, 2020) 5; Chen et al., “Financing Carbon Lock-in in Developing Countries: Bilateral financing for power generation technologies from China, Japan, and the United States,” Applied Energy, Volume 300, (October 15, 2021) 4. One 1320 MW coal plant project in Turkey that was cancelled in November 2021 had an announced engineering, procurement and construction contract with a Chinese company as of 2016. Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air, “BRIEFING: 12.8 GW of Chinese Overseas Coal Projects Cancelled, but 19 GW Could Still Go Ahead.” A June 2021 study from the Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air reported that 6.2 GW of coal capacity under construction as of 2017 had been cancelled. Center for Research on Energy and Clean Air, 4.5 Times as Much Overseas Coal Capacity Linked to China Cancelled or Shelved than Progressed to Construction (June 15, 2021), 5.
Ray et al. estimate that international development finance institutions’ infrastructure projects in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia in 2000–15 resulted in deforestation and an associated loss of carbon sinks equivalent to 0.21 Gt CO2 of emissions. Rebecca Ray, Kevin P Gallagher and Cynthia Sanborn, “Standardizing Sustainable Development?” Boston University Global Development Policy Center and the Universidad del Pacifico Center for China and Asia-Pacific Studies (2018).
Jing Hou et al., “A Global Analysis of CO2 and Non-CO2 GHG Emissions Embodied in Trade with Belt and Road Initiative Countries,” Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 6, no. 1 (December 16, 2020): 1761888; Tao Ding, Yadong Ning and Yan Zhang, “The Contribution of China’s Bilateral Trade to Global Carbon Emissions in the Context of Globalization,” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 46 (September 1, 2018): 78–88.
Xu Tian et al., “Trade Impacts of China’s Belt and Road Initiative: From Resource and Environmental Perspectives,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling 150 (2019): 104430; See also Xin Wang et al., “Mapping the Exchange between Embodied Economic Benefits and CO2 Emissions among Belt and Road Initiative Countries,”Applied Energy 307 (February 1, 2022): 118206.