Xi Lu et al. “Progress of Air Pollution Control in China and Its Challenges and Opportunities in the Ecological Civilization Era,” Engineering, Vol. 6, Issue 12 (December 2020), pp. 1425–1431; World Economic Forum, How China is tackling air pollution with big data, (February 10, 2021); New York Times, Blue skies in China, no longer just for the Olympics
You Jun Kang et al., “An Air Particulate Pollutant Induces Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration in Human Brain Models,” Advanced Science (November 2021); Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas et al., “Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults,” Toxicol. Pathol. (February 2008); Yun-Chul Hong et al., “Air pollution: a new risk factor in ischemic stroke mortality,” Stroke (February 2002); Elissa H. Wilker et al., “Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter, residential proximity to major roads and measures of brain structure,” Stroke (2015).
Zhisheng An et al., “Severe haze in northern China: A synergy of anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric processes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (April 15, 2019); Rujin Huang et al., “High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China,” Nature (October 9, 2014); X. J. Zhao et al., “Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. (June 13, 2013).
Yang Hua et al., “Investigating the impact of regional transport on PM2.5 formation using vertical observation during APEC 2014 Summit in Beijing,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. (2016); Wei Wen et al., “Understanding the Regional Transport Contributions of Primary and Secondary PM2.5 Components over Beijing during a Severe Pollution Episodes,” Aerosol and air quality research (July 2018); J. G. Zheng et al., “Exploring the severe winter haze in Beijing: the impact of synoptic weather, regional transport and heterogeneous reactions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. (March 17, 2015).
In Chinese: “空气末日.” Qingqing He et al., “Satellite-derived 1-km estimates and long-term trends of PM2.5 concentrations in China from 2000 to 2018,” Environment International (November 2021).
Qingqing He et al., “Satellite-derived 1-km estimates and long-term trends of PM2.5 concentrations in China from 2000 to 2018,” Environment International (November 2021).
Jing Wei et al., “Reconstructing 1-km-resolution high-quality PM2.5 data records from 2000 to 2018 in China: spatiotemporal variations and policy implications,” Remote Sensing Environment (January 2021).
Qiang Zhang et al., “Drivers of improved PM2.5 air quality in China from 2013 to 2017,” Proceedings of the National Academies of Science (December 3, 2019).
Jing Cheng et al., “Dominant role of emission reduction in PM2.5 air quality improvement in Beijing during 2013–2017: a model-based decomposition analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (May 9, 2019).
Shixian Zhai et al., “Fine particulate matter (PM2:5) trends in China, 2013–2018: separating contributions from anthropogenic emissions and meteorology,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. (August 29, 2019).
Haiyue Li et al., “Rapid transition in winter aerosol composition in Beijing from 2014 to 2017: response to clean air actions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys (September 12, 2019).
Deng Qi et al., “北京PM2.5来源机动车等移动源成最大头 [Beijing PM2.5 sources and vehicles becoming leading factor],” (in Chinese) Beijing News (May 14, 2018).
Xin Huang, “Enhanced secondary pollution offset reduction of primary emissions during COVID-19 lockdown in China,” National Science Review (June 18, 2020).
Lauri Myllyvirta, “Analysis: Coronavirus temporarily reduced China’s CO2 emissions by a quarter,” Carbon Brief (February 19, 2020 and updated March 30, 2020).
Robert A. Rohde and Richard A. Muller, “Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources,” PLOS ONE (August 2015).
Yuyu Chen, Avraham Ebenstein, Michael Greenstone and Hongbin Li, “Evidence on the Impact of Sustained Exposure to Air Pollution on Life Expectancy from China’s Huai River Policy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States (August 2013).
Liwen Fang et al., “Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: a Nationwide Prevalence Study,” Lancet Respiratory Medicine (June 2018).
American Thoracic Society, “Chinese Air Pollution Linked to Respiratory and Cardiovascular Deaths,”, ScienceDaily (February 10, 2017); Yaohua Tian et al., “Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Visits for Asthma in Beijing, China,” Environmental Pollution (November 2017); Lei Zhao et al., “Association Between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Oncotarget (September 12, 2017).
Yefy Gu et al., “Impacts of sectoral emissions in China and the implications: Air quality, public health, crop production and economic costs,” Environmental Research Letters (July 2018).
Zhang, X, “The Reemerging Concern over Air Pollution in China: the Smog of the State’s Efforts to Guide Public Opinion,” Journal of Chinese Political Science (2018) at pp. 519–536; George Gao, “As Smog Hangs Over Beijing, Chinese Cite Air Pollution As Major Concern,”, Pew Research Center (December 2015). See also: Cunningham, Edward, Tony Saich and Jessie Turiel, “Understanding CCP Resilience: Surveying Chinese Public Opinion Through Time,” Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation (2020); Li, X., & Tilt, B, “Public engagements with smog in urban China: Knowledge, trust, and action,” Environmental Science & Policy (2019) at pp.220–227; Associated Press, “As Incomes Rise in China, So Does Concern About Pollution,” (October 2016); Richard Wike and Bridget Parker, “Corruption, Pollution, Inequality Are Top Concerns in China,” Pew Research Center (September 2015).
U.S. Embassy, Beijing, data available for download.
President Xi spoke about air pollution at the 19th Party Congress in October 2017 and 13th National People’s Congress in March 2018). For remarks by Premier Li, see China Daily, “李克强对话夏季达沃斯论坛中外企业家代表 [Premier Li Keqiang’s Dialogues with Chinese and Foreign Entrepreneurs in Summer Davos Forum],” (in Chinese) (September 2013); ABC News, “China’s Premier Li Keqiang Vows to Tackle Chronic Air Pollution,” (March 2017); Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Transcript of Premier Li Keqiang’s Meeting with the Press at the Fifth Session of the 12th National People’s Congress” (in Chinese) (March 2017).
Yana Jin, Henrik Andersson and Shiqiu Zhang, “Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospect,” International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health (December 2016); Rob Schmitz, “China’s Fight for Cleaner Air,” Marketplace (July 2014); Colgate University, “The History of Air Pollution in China.”
China’s State Council, “National Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution” (in Chinese) (2013).
Yana Jin, Henrik Andersson and Shiqiu Zhang, “Air Pollution Control Policies in China” (December 2016); China News, “环保部：2014年8458名环境案件犯罪嫌疑人被抓捕 [Ministry of Environmental Protection: 8458 Suspects Arrested in Environmental Criminal Actions in 2014],” (in Chinese) (June 2015); Christopher Beam, “China Tries a New Tactic to Combat Pollution: Transparency,” The New Yorker (February 2015).
Ministry of Ecological Environment, “生态环境部通报2021年1-12月环境行政处罚案件与《环境保护法》配套办法执行情况 [Ministry of Ecological Environment 2021 Environmental Enforcement and Fines and ‘Environmental Protection Law’ Administrative Update],” (in Chinese) (January 24, 2022).
NDRC, “13th Five Year Plan for Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China” (2016) at pp.19 and 127; China’s State Council, “十三五”生态环境保护规划》主要内容 [Key Components of the Five-Year Plan for Nationwide Ecological Protection],” (2016); Barbara Finamore, “Tackling Pollution in China’s 13th Five Year Plan: Emphasis on Enforcement,” NRDC (March 2016); Beth Gardiner, “China’s Surprising Solutions to Clear Killer Air,” National Geographic (May 5, 2017); “Environmental Damages: 1,140 Chinese Officials Held Accountable,” China Daily (November 2017).
Ministry of Ecology and Environment, “Circular on the Final Assessment of the Implementation Plan of the Air Pollution Prevention Action Plan” (May 17, 2018); Chloe Wong, “Air Pollution in China: Are China’s Policies Working?,” Earth.org (December 23, 2021).
Damien Sharkov, “China Issues First National Smog Red Alert,” Newsweek (2017).
State Council, “打赢蓝天保卫战三年行动计划 [Three-Year Action Plan to Win the Blue Sky Defense War],” (in Chinese) (June 27, 2018); “The State Council rolls out a three-year action plan for clean air,” Ministry of Ecology and Environment (July 13, 2018).
Ministry of Ecological Environment, “生态环境部召开2月例行新闻发布会 [MEE holds February News Conference],” (February 25, 2021).
China State Council, “中共中央 国务院关于深入打好污染防治攻坚战的意见 [China Central Government and State Council Issue Opinions on Deepening Pollution Control and Enforcement Fight],” (in Chinese) (November 7, 2021).
Shanghai Bureau of Ecological Environment, “上海市2022年 大气环境与应对气候变化工作计划 [Shanghai 2022 Air Quality and Climate Change Work Plan],” (in Chinese) (March 3, 2022).
Ministry of Ecology and Environment and six other ministries, “关于印发《减污降碳协同增效实施方案》的通知 [Implementation Plan for Pollution and Carbon Reduction Coordinated Effectiveness],” (in Chinese) (June 10, 2022).
See Mark Dwortzan, “Tackling Air Pollution in China,” MIT News (May 2017).
Yue Qin, Ryan Edwards, Fan Tong and Denise L. Mauzerall, “Can Switching from Coal to Shale Gas Bring Net Carbon Reductions to China?,” ACS Publications (February 2017).
Methane breaks down more quickly than carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Experts consider methane to be roughly 84 times more powerful than carbon dioxide as a heat-trapping gas over a 20-year period and 28 times more powerful over a 100-year period. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2014: Synthesis, Fifth Assessment Report (2014) at p.87; Daniel Raimi, “The Fracking Debate,” Columbia University Press (2017) at p.111.
Yu Gan et al., “Carbon footprint of global natural gas supplies to China,” Nature Communications (2020).
See Dave Roberts, “More natural gas isn’t a “middle ground”—it’s a climate disaster,” Vox (May 30, 2019)
China Automotive Technology & Research Center (CATARC), “中国汽车低碳行动计划研究报告2021 [China Automotive Low-Carbon Program 2021 Research Report],” (in Chinese) (2021); George Bieker, A global comparison of the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of combustion engine and electric passenger cars,” International Council on Clean Transportation (July 2021); Jiahui Chen et al., “Emission mitigation potential from coordinated charging schemes for future private electric vehicles,” Applied Energy (February 15, 2022). See Chapter 16 of this Guide.
Haijun Zhao, Weichun Ma, Hongjia Dong and Ping Jiang, “Analysis of Co-Effects on Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions Generated by End-of-Pipe Measures of Pollution Control in China’s Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Sustainability (2017). See discussion in Chapter 14 of this Guide.